Sādhaka: denomination for all entertaining a spiritual discipline (sādhana) in de yoga.
- Set apart from bhakta as a preceding concept.
Sādhana-bhakti: devotion of beginners getting disciplined under guidance.
- Devotion which with sādhana, spiritual discipline, delivers service (see also rāgānuga- and vaidhi-bhakti).
- There are two kinds: contaminated and free from material motives: viddha and parā-bhakti.
Sādhu: (straight) enerring, obedient straightened, a saint, a holy man, a devotee, a seeker of truth.
- He who in full surrender to Krishna gives evidence of the greatest wisdom and holiness (see also s'anta).
Sādhyas: (literally: the ones subdued, mastered, or won; to be (being) contrived or managed; to be accomplished or fulfilled, proved or demonstrated; conquerable, practicable, feasible, curable, attainable) asaterm used for the type of demigods that are worshiped for commercial success (see 2.3: 2-7) or the allegiance of subjects in case of a king.
Sākhya: one of the five direct or primary rasa's or manifestations of love standing out as the main rasa's: the fraternal or friendly (see also bhāgavata-dharma).
Sālva (S'ālva): the demoniac member of the family that siding with S'is'upāla fought with P r adyumna, but because of his great power and magic was killed by Krishna. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).
Sāma means "pacifying." Vasudeva wanted to pacify Kamsa by indicating relations, gain, welfare, identity and glorification. Reference to these five concerns constitutes sāma, and Vasudeva 's presentation of fear in two situations: in this life and the next: is called bheda (addendum Prabhupāda canto 10.1).
Sāma-Veda: one of the four original Veda's. The Sāma-Veda consists of the musical compositions of the hymns.
Sāmba: 'with the mother': son of Krishna and one of his eight principal wives Jambavatī. He stole away the daughter of Duryodhana, was captured by the Kaurava's, which then led to a campaign of Balarāma cursing the dynasty and dragging Hastināpura into the Ganges (see 10.68). Sāmba was the one Yadu who once as a boy had challenged the learned ones playing he was a pregnant woman, which then led to the curse that destroyed the Yadu-dynasty in the end, Krishna's last mission to remove the burden from the earth (see 11.1).
Sāmvartaka: the fire at the end of time.
Sānkhya: analytic knowledge; philosophocal analysis of the material and the spiritual and the controller of both.
- Theļstically to the avatāra Kapila (see S.B 3: ch25) a system of philosophy entailing the analytic study of the soul as distinguished from the twenty-four elements of material nature.
- Atheistically to the philosopher of the same name a system of material analysis of the world of appearances in all her different manifestations.
- School of yoga-philosophy to which one reckons P atańjali (see also Vidhya, Yoga and Ashthānga).
Sānkhya-yoga: thorough study of the spiritual ego as differing from the physical body. This way is the living soul brought to bhakti-yoga, in which it can enter the spiritual activities, which are his authentic action.
Sārī: long seamless colorful cloth used by the female devotee to dress herself.
- Traditional indian vesture, wrapped cloth, for woman.
Sāstra: see s'āstra.
Sās'vata (S'ās'vata): durability, quality of the soul (used in B.G. 1.42, 2.20).
Sātvata: (of Satvata, the one to the absolute truth, a name of Krishna) another name for devotee, servant of the Absolute Truth (sat).
- Specifically the ones devoted to Krishna; the Yadus and the Vaishnavas.
Sātyaki: the son of Satyaka see 9.24: 14, who also, next to Dāruka (zie 10.53: 5), served as Krishna's charioteer; is also called Yuyudhāna (zie 3.1: 31).
Sāyujya: impersonal liberation in which one dissolves in the brahmajyoti.
Sabda (s'abdha): sound (known as Krishna).
- A process of sacrificing sound in the controlled mind.
- Kind of pramāna, or a certain truth of evidence.
- An 'object' of the senses (see vishaya).
Sabda khe (s'abdha khe): Krishna's expression 'I am the sound in the ether' (see B.G. 7: 7).
- Also called ākās'a nāda in 12.6: 37 (see also diviyam s'rotam).
- Hearing the sounds of all living beings in the ether belongs to the secondary siddhi dūra s'ravana ('remote hearing') mentioned in 11.15: 19.
Sabda-brahman (s'abda-brahman): the oral tradition, culture of precept and ritual giving access to Krishna -consciousness (s'ābhda-brahman: the Veda).
- The spiritual sound manifesting itself in the vital breath, the senses and the mind (11.21: 36, and 11.15: 19). Mystically in selfrealization and socially in the tradition of the personal conveyance of the knowledge.
- S'rīla Vis'vanātha Cakravartī Thhākura explains the divisions of s'abdha as follows.- The prāna phase of Vedic sound, known as parā, is situated in the ādhāra-cakra;
- the mental phase, known as pas'yantī, is situated in the area of the navel, on the manipūraka-cakra;
- the intellectual phase, known as madhyamā, is situated in the heart area, in the anāhata-cakra.
- Finally, the manifest sensory phase of Vedic sound is called vaikharī (see also cakra).
Sac-cid-ānanda: see sat-cit-ānanda.
Sagara: ('with poison') renown king called that way because of an offense committed by his parents relating to sage Aurva. On the word of Aurva, in yoga with the Supersoul of all vedic knowledge and the enlightened souls, was he with horse-sacrifices of worship with the Lord. His sons were responsible for the place called Gangāsāgara. It was he who gave people of a dubious nature some standing. A certain day was the horse used in the worship, by Indra stolen. The proud sons born from Sumati, a wife of Sagara, turned, ordered by their father, the earth up side down in search of the horse, which they found back in the as'rāma of sage Kapila who burnt them with his fiery look to ashes as they aggressively approached him. To wash away their sins was the Ganges brought down after ages of renunciation (see also 9.8 & 9.9).
Saguna: (literally: endowed with qualities): relates to Krishna, the Absolute Truth, in the sense that he has qualities that are completely transcendental (see nirguna en brahman).
Sahadeva: One of Arjuna's younger brothers. Twin brother of Nakula (see Pāndava's).
Sahajiyā: incorrect imitation of the love of the gopi's; fake-bhakti.
Sakti-(S'akti)-avesha-avatāra: an incarnation of Krishna as partial incarnation (Jesus Christ e.g.).
Sakti (S'akti): strength, energy, power, might, ability, effort, capability. Feminine aspect in relation to material activities. In three kinds (see also Energy and further under Potencies):- Tatastha-, divine energy.
- Antaranga, lower material energy.
- Bahiranga-s'akti, the energy in between of the living souls.
- The energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife and worshipped under various names depending on the godhead of concern.
Salva (S'ālva): the demoniac member of the family that siding with S'is'upāla fought with Pradyumna, but because of his great power and magic was killed by Krishna. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).
Samādhi: spiritual absorption, Krishna, perfect state of spiritual enrapture through a full commitment in devotional service.
- Final phase of ashthānga-yoga, the eightfold path.
- Selfrealization (see also asamprajńata-, dharmamegha- and samprajńata-).
- Patańjali describes in his yoga-sūtra the different forms of samādhi as being with and without 'seed' (sabija and nirbijasamādhi, Prabhupāda: life and lifeless yoga S.B. 3.28:34). Seed means more that just the biology, it also implies having thoughts, discrimination, relating to objects: to control the mind about the lifeless of an object. Without seed would be without the object (and without thoughts).
Samāna-vāyu: the inner physical pressure which serves the balancing. It is one of the five types of air controlled by the technique of breathing in ashthānga-yoga (see vāyu).
Samatvam: to be balanced, equanimity.
S'ambhu: name of lord S'iva as the beneficient one.
Samhitā (joined, attached, fixed, composed, put together): a collection of stories, a bible; the Bhāgavatam is also called the paramahamsa samhitā, the collection of stories about the supreme person, the paramahamsa that is the Lord.
Samprajnata-samādhi: deliberate absorption with discrimination or 'seed'-thoughts (sabija versus nirbija).
Sampradāya: organization of vaishnavas consisting of different schools or maths. For ISKCON: the Brahmā-Madhvā-Gaudīya-sampradāya; the bengal branch of the Brahmā-sampradāya. there are four main sampradāya's: the Brahmā-, S'rī-, Rudra and Kumāra-sampradāya who all worship Lord Vishnu. (active as the: Ramanuja-sampradāya, the Madhvā-Gaudīya-sampradāya of Lord Caitanya, the Vishnusvami-sampradāya and the Nimbarka-sampradāya).
- The disciplic succession of the Brahmā sampradāya is as follows: Brahmā, N ārada, Vyāsa, Madhvācārya(Pūrnaprajna), Padmanābha, Narahari, Mādhava, Akshobhya, Jayatīrtha, Jńānasindhu, Dayānidhi, Vidyānidhi, Rājendra Tirtha, Jayadharma (Vijayadhvaja Tīrtha), Purushottama Tīrtha, Brahmanya Tīrtha, Vyāsa Tīrtha, Lakshmīpatī, Mādhavendra Pūrī, Īs'vara Pūrī, S'rī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Svarūpa Dāmodara (Vis'vambara) en S'rī Rūpa G osvāmī en anderen, S'rī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Krishna dāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, Narottama dāsa Thhākura, Vis'vanātha Cakravartī Thhākura, Baladeva Vidyābhūshana, Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī, Bhaktivinoda Thhākura, S'rī Gaura Kishora dāsa Bābājī, S'rimad Bhakti siddhānta Saraswatī, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swāmi Prabhupāda.
- Disciplic succession of spiritual masters (see also ācārya's). Line in succession in which the teaching is handed down (see also paramparā).
Samsār(a): the world as an ocean of material suffering. Matter as a forest fire to the soul. The cycle or wheel of repeated birth and death.Sams'aya: doubt.
Samskāra: purification ritual (see garbādhāna and anna-prāsana).
- The following purification mantra is e.g. used when one takes a bath (from the Garuda Purana, cited in Hari-bhakti-vilāsa 3.47); It belongs to the nārāyana kavacha shield of mantra's used to ward of fear (see 6.8: 4-6).'om apavitrah pavitro vā
sarvāvasthām gato 'pi vā
yah smaret pundarīkāksam
sa bāhyābhyantarah sucih
s'rī-visnuh s'rī-visnuh s'rī-visnuh'
'whether one is holy or of sin
or even had to go through all
he remembering the lotusvision
is purified within without
Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu'
Translation: "Unpurified or purified, or even having passed through all situations,one who remembers the lotus-eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead iscleansed within and without."
- Subliminal impression: Patańjali, Yoga Sutra III.18: 'In the observation of his subliminal impressions or samskāras is there the knowledge of previous lives' (see also vāsanā).
Samvatsara: a complete year,a tropical jaar, a solar year (sāmvatsara: yearly, but also: a lunar cycle of 29.5 days, vatsara: a year).
Samyama: the integration of concentration, meditation and absorption, dhāranā, dhyāna and samādhi (see also ashthānga yoga).
Sanātana-dhāma: the eternal abode, the Vaikunthha-worlds in the spiritual sky (see also loka).
Sanātana-dharma: the eternal duty unto Him (Krishna) to be of service as a universal and absolute religion; the fight, the 'war of eternity' for His shelter (see also bhāgavata dharma en varnās'rama dharma).
Sanātana Gosvāmī: one of the six great spiritual teachers of Vrindāvana, who by Lord Caitanya Mahā prabhu were empowered, to establish and spread the teachings of Krishna -consciousness (see gosvāmī).
Sanat-kumāra: one of the four Kumāras, great sages and godly devotees of the Lord.
Sanātana-yoga: the eternal activities performed by the living being.
Sangas: attachment (also: rāga); the emotional preference of associating with material things.
- Material involvement without being of service unto Him.
Sangam: association of devotees also called sat-sanga, to associate in devotion to the true or the truth.
- In a worldy sense: be intimate with, to have sex with.
Sańjaya: he who passed on the Gītā to Dhritarāshthra, directly by clairvoyancy. He was his secretary and a pupil of Vyāsa-deva (See kurukshetra).
Sankara (not to confuse with s'ankara): confusion, being mixed up, corruption.
- Unwanted offspring; of mixed marriages.
Sankarācārya (S'ankarācārya): an incarnation of Lord S'iva, who appeared in the eight century to propagate an impersonal philosophy, by which he wanted to wipe buddhism out of India so that the authority of the Veda's could be restored.
- Propagator of the m ayavadī - philosophy in which the Lord and the living being are put on the same level (see further S'ankarācārya).
Sankarshana ('the one who unites, draws together, plows', see 10.8: 12): the first expansion of the Supreme Personality, who is responsible for the jiva, the individual soul or ego-consciousness. (see also Aniruddha - of the mind and Vāsudeva of the consciousness and Pradyumna of the intelligence, see also Vyūhas, S.B. 4.24:35-37 en Pańca-tattva).
- As a transcendental expansion of Lord Balarāma (Nityānanda) named Mahā- and Halāyudha, He represents the aspect of the individual soul (the jiva). Is the source of the purusha-avatāra's (see Vishnu).
Sankīrtan: preaching of His glory directly by oral reception or indirectly through the scriptures. Founded by S' r i Caitanya Mahāprabhu (see also yajna).
Sankīrtana-yajna, or mahā-yajna: the most important of all sacrifices, settled by S'ri Caitanya Mahāprabhu, consisting of preaching of the glory of God.
- The most important form of this consists of the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord in public, to which one always dances and distributes prasādam. The Bhāgavatam calls sankīrtana the only method possible to counter the corrupting influence of kali-yuga (see e.g. 1.2: 16, 1.6: 32, 2.1: 11, 5.5: 10-13, 6.3: 22, 7.5: 23-24, 8.17: 8, 9.5: 21, 11.5: 36-37, 11.11: 23-24, 11.14: 24, 11.27: 35, 11.28: 40).
Sankīrtana: all activity of preaching the glory of God for the good of everyone.
- To detach oneself from the fruits of one's actions in doing one's duty.
- The order of renouncing the world, ās'rama, of the mendicant preachers (see also mahā bhāgavata).
- Fourth and last order of phase of spiritual life (see ās'rama); complete detachment from a family or societal life in order to arrive at perfectly controlled mind and senses and a full dedication of service unto Krishna.
- There are four stages in accepting the renounced order:1) Kutīcaka: one stays outside one's village in a cottage, and one's necessities, especially one's food, are supplied from home,
2) Bahūdaka: one no longer accepts anything from home: instead, one, madhukari, with the "profession of the bumblebees", collects one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places
3) Parivrājakācārya: one travels all over the world to preach the glories of Lord Vāsudeva collecting one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places, and
4) Paramahamsa: he finishes his preaching work and sits down in one place, strictly for the sake of advancing in spiritual life.
Sannyāsī: the devotee of Krishna who gave up everything in order to serve the Lord (see 11.18).
- Someone who lives according the rules and regulations of sannyāsa (see also ās'rama).
Santa: one of the five direct or primary rasas or manifestations of love considered the main rasas: the neutral one.
Santa (S'anta): a devotee of realization, those who have attained peace; (see also munis and sādhus).
Santosa/santush: peacefulness; contentment to be satisfied, part of niyama.
Sanskrit: the language of the Vedas, one of the oldest languages in the world. A dead language fundamental to modern indian languages as Hindi and Bangla, mainly practiced by priests reciting from the classical scriptures (see for a modern Sanskrit dictionary and Vis'vakosha).
- The language is characterized by conjugations and contaminations of practically every word in a sentence to the verb ruling. As an old language it is endlessly connoted in which words like karma and dharma take several pages to describe and also for each English concept countless Sanskrit descriptions are found. To understand any Sanskrit thus heavily depends on the school of interpretation (see also siddhānta) (see further a textbook about it and an online course).
- Grammatically, Sanskrit has eight cases for the noun (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental, vocative, and locative), three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), three numbers for verbs, nouns, pronouns, and adjectives (singular, dual, and plural), and three voices for the verb (active, middle, and passive). The language is very highly inflected.
- The original script is called Devanāgarī. De translation in western letters is called I-trans (see downloads).
Sarasvatī: the goddess of education and scholarship. Eternal companion of Lord Brahmā.
Sarga: the material creation, the primary creation. The five gross elements, the objects of the senses and the senses themselves including the mind give rise to the manifestation which is called the created universe (2.10: 3, see also visarga and 2.10.1-7, and 12: 7: 9-11).
Sarva-gatah: omnipresence. Quality of the soul.
Sat: (being, existing, occurring, happening, being present; the real, the true, the good, the right; the beautiful wise and honest) in the opposition of sat-asat is by this term the absolute truth indicated as opposed to the relative truth, nature as opposed to culture, the Time of the dynamic living reality of the natural world as opposed to manmade illusory (though necessary) fixations of order; the denominated relative to the denomination (see also rita-anrita and 11: 28).
- The resounding of the word Sat is used in the agreed upon activities of the devotion to the nature of the Supreme; it is uttered to indicate the activities meant and the Absolute of the truth (B.G. 17: 26-27).
Satarūpā (S'atarūpā): wife of S v ā yambhuva Manu, see (3.12: 54), and the mother of Deva hūti.
- Among the ladies is Krishna S'atarūpā (see also Mohini Mūrti, 11.16: 25).
- Vedic equivalent of Eva, the first created woman.
Sat-cit-ānanda: eternity, consciousness, bliss. Main qualities of Krishna relating to the three levels of realization: brahman, paramātmā and bhagavān: the impersonal spirit, the localized aspect, and His complete. What counts in selfrealization is the consecutive realization of the continuity of the impersonal spirit, the consciousness of the local aspect and the happiness of His opulence, His Person.
- The qualities of the spiritual and absolute form (vigraha) of the Supreme Lord; but also of the original form of the living beings, who so sure are part of His being.
- The qualities of spiritual existence on itself.
- The transcendental spirit soul exhibits his own qualities of eternality (sat), knowledge (cit) and bliss (ānanda) in bhakti called resp. the sandhinī, samvit and hlādinī potencies of the Supreme Lord (see pp. 11.22: 12, potencies).
Sat(Sac)-cit-ānanda-vigraha: Krishna in His form of eternity, consciousness and bliss (see also om tat sat).
Satī: voluntary suicide by women of stepping into the fire after their husbands death. A traditional compulsion that ran obsolete.
- Name of the daughter of the prajāpati Daksha (see 4.4).
Sat-kāla: eternal time for itself, with no further denomination or division, known as the movement of, or that what moves the, matter (see kāla and asat-kāla).
Satrājit: 'always victorious'. He was a son of Nighna (see 9.24: 13) and father of Satyabhama; he gave her to atone for the syamantaka-affair (see 10.56) and thus became a father-in-law of Krishna. He was killed by Satadhanvan.
Sat-sanga: association of devotees or simply sangam, to meet with; the eternal bond of Krishna and His devotees.
Sat-ūrmi: see shath-ūrmi.
Sattva: the mode of goodness, the quality of purity or goodness that renders a person true, honest, wise (see gunas).
- S'uddha-sattva or s'uddhas'īla: pure goodness, purity of character, innocense guilessness, a quality at a high level of bhakti.
- The way of goodness in Krishna-consciousness of transcending the modes.
- Character, vital breath, life, consciousness, strength of character, strength, firmness, energy, resolution, courage, selfcommand, good sense, wisdom, magnanimity.
- The highest of the three modes (B.G. 14: 6).
- Inner strength, being, existence, entity, reality, true essence, nature, disposition of mind.
- Spiritual essence, spirit, mind.
- A thing pure, clean;
- Material or elementary substance, entity, matter, a thing.
Sātvata: (of Satvata, the one to the absolute truth, a name of Krishna) another name for devotee, servant of the Absolute Truth (sat).
- Specifically the ones devoted to Krishna ; the Yadus and the Vaishnavas.
Sat-ūrmi: zie shath-ūrmi.
Satya: truth, love of truth. second part of yama (see ashthānga-yoga). One leg of the bull of dharma (see Kali-yuga).
- Name for the first epoch of a mahāyuga (see also krita).
- As a quality of bhakti: see satya-dharma.
- Name of a loka : 'the place of truth' also named brahmaloka.
Satya-dharma: the religion of the truth. Term for Krishna-bhakti as the truth loving performance of duty (the 'real thing').
Satyam-sivam-sundaram: the true, the conscious and the beauty as the essence of divinity.
Satyavrata: a saintly king, a great personality and devotee of Lord Nārāyana, who performed penances and austerities only subsisting on water and as a son of the sungod became celebrated as S'rāddhadeva by Lord Hari being entrusted the position of Manu (Vaishvasvata Manu). He was the one who discovered Matsya, the Lord in His fish-incarnation (8.24: 10).
Satya-yuga: first period of a mahāyuga, four times as long as Kali-yuga (see also krita and hamsa).
Saubhari Muni: mighty mystic who fell down attracted by the copulation of a couple of fish (S.B 9.6).
Sauca (s'auca): purity (for self-awareness also spiritual). Part of niyama (see also Vidhi). Relates to the defense of respect for the celibate state, the original person, the children's soul (see also dāna).
Saunaka Rishi (S'aunaka): the chief of the sages who were present in Naimishāranya when Sūta Gosvāmī related the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Sauri: see S'auri.
Scriptures, revealed scriptures, also s'āstra. The vedic scriptures in general (s'ruti; the Veda's and Upanishads) or each other scripture with authority in the field of spiritual knowledge (smrti; the itihāsa's, purāna's and such), provided that along this course of the paramparā 2) is explained what the being is of the Absolute Truth, or the Supreme Being, of the individual soul and his eternal bond that binds them together (see also veda and purāna).
Senses: also indriya. The five senses or sense organs: hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell. Also, in a broader sense, the ten senses: the senses of perception or jńānendriyas (ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose) and the working senses karmendriyas (mouth, arms, legs, genitals and anus), Sometimes the mind is added as the eleventh sense (S.B. 3.26: 13). They are part of the twenty-five elements (see also elements).
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