Pâda: feet (see p a d m a, l o t u s f e e t and P r a b h u p â d a).

- Chapter, part of a book.

- The foot of a mountain.

- A wheel.

- The measure of one foot.

- A quarter.

- Pada (without the ^): a step, space, point of view, position, home.

Pâda-vibhûti: the quarter of the complete world that is visible, the material world.

Pâñcarâtrika: collection of laws and precepts concerning the performance of devotional service.

- To become a devotee of K r i s h n a implies to accept an education: from a person contaminated by the symptoms of K a l i- y u g a (to be like a s' û d r a) is one promoted to the status of a d e v a.

Pândavas: brothers of A r j u n a, the five warrior-brothers and intimate friends of Lord K r i s h n a, who were given rulership of the world by Him after their victory in the Battle of K u r u k s h e t r a.

- The five sons of king P â n d u and queen K u n t î: A r j u n a, S a h a d e v a, N a k u l a, B h î m a and Y u d h i s h t h h i r a (see family tree).

Pându: a younger brother of D h r i t a r â s h t h r a, who died young leaving behind his five sons, the P â n d a v a s, under the care of D h r i t a r â s h t h r a.

Pâpa: sin, trouble.

Pârijâta: the coral tree, Erythrina Indica. It loses its leaves in June and then is covered with large crimson flowers. It is one of the trees of paradise produced at the churning of the ocean (see 8.7 & 8.8) and taken possession of by I n d r a from whom it was afterwards taken by K r i s h n a. Also famous for its wood (mentioned in the description e.g. of D v â r a k â S.B. 10.50: 50-53).

Pârtha-sârathi: K r i s h n a, the charioteer of A r j u n a (Pârtha). 

Pârvatî: S a t î, Lord S' i v a's consort, reborn as the daughter of the king of the Himalaya Mountains. She cursed king C i t r a k e t u to be reborn among the demons for insulting her (see 6.17).

Pâshandî (pâshanda): an atheist who thinks that God and the demigods are of the same level.

- Heretical, hypocritical impostor, an unreferring, non-bonafide, jealous philosopher or false teacher.

Padma: lotus, the flower of the lotus plant Nelumbium Speciosum that closes at night; often confused with the waterlilly Nymphaea Alba, related to it.

- Indication of spiritual purity.

- Pâdma: of the lotus, everything relating to a lotus, also name of a certain K a l p a.

Paksha: period of fourteen to fifteen days (see p a ñ c a - d a s' a), to be precise half a lunar month; the first half from new moon to full moon was called pûrva or apûryamâna, later s'ukla or s'uddha; the other half apara or apakshîyamâna, later krishna or tâmisra; each fortnight consists of 15 tithis or lunar days called prathamâ (see also 5.20: 30).

Pañca-bhâga: ('the five portions') the five claimants of sacrifice, the five household deities: the gods, the manes, the seers, the humans and the lower creatures (see e.g. 11.23: 9 and 7.14: 15, 7.15: 6 , 10.84: 39).

Pañca-das'a: period of fifteen days (ahâni).

Pâñcajanya: the conchshell of Lord K r i s h n a.

Pañca-mahâbhûta: The five material elements: earth, water, fire, air and sky (or ether).

Pañcarâtra: supplement to the V e d a s, describing the way of m û r t i-worship for the devotees in the present era.

Pañcas'ikha: One who is liberated from the conceptions of annamaya, pra-ânamaya, manomaya, vijnânamaya and ânandamaya and who thus is perfectly aware of the subtle coverings (k o s'as) of the soul is called pancas'ikha. According to the statements of the M a h â b h â r a t a (Sânti-parva, Chapters 218-219), an â c â r y a named Pañcas'ikha took birth in the family of M a h â r â j a J a n a k a, the ruler of M i t h i l a. The S â n k h y a philosophers accept Pañcas'ikhâcârya as one of them.

Pañca-tattva: (pañca: five) the reality of Lord C a i t a n y a as consisting of Himself, Lord N i t y â n a n d a, Lord A d v a i t a, Lord G a d â d h a r a and Lord V â s â d i. Are considered as V i s h n u - t a t t v a (see also pañca-tattva-mantra and catur vyûha).

Pandita: (Hindu: pundit), scholar, the man of learning, the learned one (see 11: 29: 12 and B.G. 2: 11, 4: 19, 5: 4, 5: 18 3: 25-26).

Pannaga: 'creeping low', low-life serpents, kings or foes; serpent killers or serpent eaters.

Parag-âtmâ: the soul attached to sense gratification.

Parâ-bhakti: intimate association with K r i s h n a (highest form). Pure devotion. As opposed to v i d d h a - b h a k t i: contaminated with material motives (see also v a i d h i and r â g a n u g a - b h a k t i).

Parâbhava: defeat, the way the muslim Kazi had to accept defeat from L o r d  C a i t a n y a (C.C. Âdi 17. 168).

- The fact that m â y â seizes everyone. Reason of the sound incarnation of the Lord as the H a r e  K r i s h n a - m a h â m a n t r a.

Parakîya: Loving relationship apart from a marriage.

Param: higher, transcendent, exalted, pure, spiritual, transcendental, beyond.

Paramahamsa: (from parama: supreme, and h a m s a: swan) the most elevated of all the self-realized, or someone who like a swan, a h a m s a, who knows to extract milk from a mixture of milk and water, is capable of seeing the Lord only in all circumstances, in whom he is completely absorbed (see also s a n n y â s a).

Paramâtmâ: the Supersoul (K s h i r o d a k a s' â y î V i s h n u). Transcendental nature of K r i s h n a. The omnipresent local personal aspect of K r i s h n a: 'God'.

- Second level of realization between B h a g a v â n and B r a h m a n (see also 1.2: 11, v i b h u - â t m â and s a t - c i t - â n a n d a).

- Plenary expansion of K r i s h n a (B h a g a v â n) who resides in the heart of every living being, in each atom of the material creation and even in between the atoms. He represents the everywhere local aspect of the Absolute Truth.

Param Brahman: the Supreme B r a h m a n.

- The Personality of Godhead, S' r î  K r i s h n a.

Param-dhâma: His abode, the spiritual world.

Paramesvara: The Supersoul, the Absolute Master.

Param-guru: another name for the spiritual master. Teacher who teaches from and in favor of the transcendental. The teacher in transcendence (see also c a i t t y a).

Paramparâ: ('one after the other') disciplic succession. for the H a r e K r i s h n a s: the B r a h m â - M a d h v â - G a u d î y a - s a m p r a d â y a (see also: s a m p r a d â y a).

- Succession of spiritual teachers who, without changing anything of it, passed on the original teachings of the Lord generation after generation till today.

Paramparâ-method: to transfer the knowledge of the spiritual with the critical readaptation to time and place for which one constantly is redirected towards K r i s h n a, His devotees and the original scriptures (see: s a m p r a d â y a).

Paramparâ-guru: bona fide teacher of spiritual knowledge, - selfrealized soul who (see 5.13: 24, 12.6: 46 and B.G. 4: 1-3 and s a m p r a d â y a).

1) As a teacher is part of a disciplic succession.

2) He is a T a t t v a  d a r s' i n a h, a seer of truth (see also s t i t h a  p r a j n a and â c â r y a and g u r u).

Parantapa: a name of A r j u n a - he who chastises the enemies.

Parârdha: the half of the life of B r a h m â, that in its entirety takes 311 trillion 40 billion years (see image).

Parâ-prakriti: see p r a k r i t i.

Parâsara Muni: a great sage, father of V y â s a d e v a.

Paras'urâma: an incarnation of the Lord who a long time ago appeared to fight the class of warriors that ran into decay (paras'u means chopper).

Para-tattva: aspect of the Absolute Truth, 'the supreme reality'.

Paravyoma: the spiritual sky, the spiritual abode, the spiritual goal. As a world on itself also called V a i k u n t h h a by the V a i s h n a v a s (see also m o k s h a and B r a h m a n).

Paria: untouchable, 'nonsocial element' with whom one avoids to associate (see c a n d â l a and h a r i j a n).

Parîkchit (Parîkshit): grandson of A r j u n a. Son of Abhimanyu and U t t a r â. M a h â r â j a, the emperor who as a child in the womb was protected by K r i s h n a and later on was the continuation of the Y a d u - d y n a s t y. The first vedic sovereign who laid out the norms for K a l i - y u g a and was cursed by the son of a b r â h m a n a to die in seven days because of not treating him properly. For him to attain perfection was next the S' r î m a d  B h â g a v a t a m explained by S' u k a d e v a  G o s v â m î, the son of V y â s a d e v a, the original author of the book about the Lord and His devotees.

- Also called Vishnudatta or Vishnurata, the one given by, or presented by V i s h n u.

Passion (r a j o - g u n a. r a j a s): one of the three modes of material nature. Under her influence one falls to greed, serious attachment to the world, uncontrollable desires, striving beyond necessity and - despite of the painstaking and enduring efforts to improve one's material position - chronic discontent. Passion is ruled by B r a h m â.

Pas'u: animal nature: The snake of time in four necessities, the four animal propensities; âhâra, nidrâ, bhaya and maithuna; eating, sleeping, fearing or defending and mating (see 7.9: 5)

- Denotes in t a n t r a - y o g a, the y o g a of the transformation of sexual energy, in which one limits oneself to one partner.

Pas'u-pati: Lord S' i v a as the lord of the animals. Worshiped by the g o p a s of V r a j a in chapter 34 of Canto 10.

Patañjali: a great authority of the a s h t h â n g a - y o g a - system and author of the yoga-sûtra (see also y o g a).

- Incarnation of A n a n t a  S' e s h a or S a n k a r s h a n a (see c a t u r - v y û h a).

Paundraka: a king who posing as K r i s h n a was killed by Him (see 10.66).

Pavarga: struggle for one's existence, accompanied by defeat, exhaustion, imprisonment, fear and death.

Pavitra: pure.

Payo-vrata: (only drinking-fast, fast on milk only) a form of fasting on a vow of only drinking called sarva-yajña (the one covering all sacrifices) and is thus, with the charity pleasing the Lord, understood as the very essence of all austerities, so says K a s' y a p a to his wife A d i t i doing the fast to give birth to Lord V â m a n a (see 8: 17).

Phala-s'ruti: 'the fruit of listening', the promise of success given to one who hears it, usually at the end of a chapter as it regularly occurs in the B h â g a v a t a m at the end of discussing a subject of devotion.

Phâlguna; name of A r j u n a as the one born in the month, at the moment, during which the full moon stands in the Nakshatra, the ascendant, (Pûrvâ-)Phalgunî (February-March). Thus he was was only eight days older than K r i s h n a who was born with Rohini rising.

Phalgu-vairâgya: the immature form of renunciation rejecting material things, modern means, the material world, on itself conducive to devotional service as opposed to y u k t a - v a i r â g y a, engaging everything in the service of Lord K r i s h n a.

Pingalâ: prostitute mentioned in a story of K r i s h n a for U d d h a v a as one of the twenty-four masters of the a v a d h û t a. From her one learns not to desire and thus reach K r i s h n a (see 11.8: 22-44).

Pipal (pippala) tree (Ficus religiosa) or a s' v a t t h a, a native tree of India called the holy fig tree, held sacred by the B u d d h i s t s, who believe that Gautama Buddha received enlightenment under a Bo or Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya. The Bo tree attains great size and age; the leaves, which hang from long, flexible petioles, rustle in the slightest breeze. Pipal is also spelled peepul or pipul. All parts of the Pipal tree, including roots, bark, leaf and fruit, are useful. The botanical classification of the Bo tree is:

Division: Magnoliophyta; class: Magnoliopsida, order:  Urticales; Family:  Moraceae.

Description of the Plant: Large tree. Flower color red. Flowers in February. Fruits in May / June. Widely found in uplands and plain area.

Plant Parts Used: Root / Bark / Leaf / Fruit.

- Mentioned as being Him in the G î t â (at 10: 26) and in the B h â g a v a t a m as the tree at P r a b h â s a under which K r i s h n a sat when He was hit by J a r â and left for V a i k u n t h a (see 11.30: 27).

Pitriloka: the planets, the world where the deceased ancestors live.

Pis'âcas: yellow meat-eating devils, or urchins as also: a fiend, an ogre, a demon, an imp, a malevolent or devilish being and a she-devil.

Pitâs: deceased ancestors who were promoted to an honorable position on one of the higher planets.

Planets, Hellish -: planets, spheres or worlds of living belonging to the lower. They are of the dark and demoniac, and those who because of their sinful ways come to live there, have there a life of unbearable suffering (see also L o k a).

Planets, Heavenly -: planets, spheres or worlds of living belonging to the higher. The beings living there are situated on a higher level, live much longer and have much more extensive - better regulated - sensual pleasures than one has on other planets of the universe (see also L o k a).


- The Supreme Lord His (feminine) internal potencies of fortune (S' r î), development (Pushthi or also strength), speech (Gîr or knowledge), beauty (Kânti), renown (Kîrti), contentment (Tushthi or renunciation - these first ones are His six opulences, see also b h a g a); comfort (Ilâ, bhu-s'akti, the earth-element or sandhinî) and power (Ûrjâ, expanding as T u l a s î); His potencies of knowing and ignorance (v i d y â and a v i d y â, leading to liberation and bondage); His internal pleasure potency (s' a k t i or hlâdinî), his marginal potency (ca or jiva-s'akti) and His creative potency (M â y â) (see 10.39: 53-55).

- Liberation means that the living entity should transfer himself to the spiritual potency of the Lord, which can be divided into three categories:

- sandhinî, the potency of eternal existence;
- samvit, the potency of omniscience;
- and hlâdinî, the potency of bliss.

K r i s h n a 's potency for existence, His potency for knowledge and His potency for pleasure - are distinct from y o g a m â y â. Each is an individual potency. This is another formulation of the divine in terms of s a t - c i t - â n a n d a; K r i s h n a as being eternity, consciousness and bliss (see also s' a k t i).

- The nine potencies, elements, energies of material nature (p r a k r i t i), the living entity (p u r u s h a), cosmic intelligence (m a h a t - t a t t v a), the false ego (a h a n k â r a) and the five objects of the senses (the t a n m â t r â s) of the sound, what touches, the form, the taste and the aroma (see also the nine s' a k t i s, and 11.19: 14 and 11.22).

Prabhâsa: ('splendor') place from where K r i s h n a left this earth.

Prabhu: master, honorary title for respected b h a k t a s.

Prabhupâda: literally master of the feet, honorary title for a spiritual master.

- S w a m i P r a b h u h p â d a: the v a i s h n a v a - â c â r y a who brought the b h a k t i y o g a of Lord K r i s h n a-C a i t a n y a to the west and translated the verses of G î t â and the Bhâgavatam (see also p â d a).

- Also Vishnupâda: the refuge of the shelter that is V i s h n u.

Prabodhânanda Sarasvatî: great v a i s h n a v a-poet and devotee of Lord S' r î  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u.

Prâcînabarhi: a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on the essence of the soul from N â r a d a M u n i. This instruction culminates in the story of life its tribulations and the reality of reincarnation with the character of P u r a ñ j a n a who lived in the city of nine gates as an analogy to the soul inhabiting the body (see 4.24-29). He was the father of the P r a c e t â s.

Pracetâs: the sons of king P r â c î n a b a r h i. They withdrew for austerities and received instruction from Lord S' i v a (4.24) and N â r a d a (4.32). Later they married with M â r i s h â who gave birth to D a k s h a (4.30, 31 & 32) (see also M a h â r i s h i).

Pradhâna: the primary nature, the primeval ether, the primary or unevolved matter or nature; the undifferentiated in possession of the differentiated nature, consisting of the cause and effect of the combination of the three modes (see also s û t r a, e l e m e n t s, S.B.: 3.26:10, 3.29: 36 , 10.85: 3, 11.22: 33, and 12.4: 20).

Pradyumna: 'the pre-eminently mighty one', one of the four original expansions of Lord K r i s h n a in the spiritual world ruling the intelligence reported to be the god of love incarnate. (see also S a n k a r s h a n a - of the ego, A n i r u d d h a - of the mind and V â s u d e v a - of the consciousness, see also V y û h a s, S.B. 4.24:35-37 and P a ñ c a - t a t t v a).

- Name of Cupid the God of Love incarnated as a son of K r i s h n a and His first wife R u k m i n î.

- Pradyumna, the son of K r i s h n a fought against S' a l v a, a member of the family siding with S' i s' u p â l a. He couldn't defeat the great magician and thus was it K r i s h n a in person who put S' a l v a down (see 10.76).

Prahasan: smiling, characteristic of K r i s h n a.

Prahlâda: A great devotee of the Lord and son of H i r a n y a k a s' i p u, a demoniac ruler who by means of severe penance enforced not to be destroyed by any weapon, but ultimately was torn apart by the nails of N r i s i m h a - d e v a. Prahlâda is of special significance to the devotees, the b h a k t a s, because by remembering K r i s h n a he ultimately found the grace of liberation from the misery of his father (see also B h â g a v a t a  D h a r m a, N r i s i m h a d e v and the bhajan about him, see 7.5 and further).

Prajâpati: the founding father, e.g. D a k s h a and K a r d a m a (see also M a n u).

- Progenitor of the living beings;

- Lord B r a h m â.

Prajna: scholarship, knowledge of the divine, consciousness of the true knowledge of God.

Prakâs'a-vigraha: form of K r i s h n a, that for a few characteristics is identical to His original form.

Prâkrita: third rank devotion on a material level: one has no clear idea yet of K r i s h n a and His devotees. Applies to Christians and Muslims.

Prakriti: the material nature (a p â r a -) with the living beings (see 11.2: 47 and p a r â p r a k r i t i).

Prâkritimsvam: K r i s h n a's term for His own transcendental form.

Pralamba: a black demon sent by K a m s a in order to destroy K r i s h n a that tried to run off with B a l a r â m a on His back but was slain by Him (10.18).

Pralaya: annihilation. The progress of k â l a is described as being of a continuous (nitya), occasional (naimittika), natural (elemental or prâkritika) and final (âtyantika) type of annihilation or pralaya (12.4: 38).

- A second division of annihilation (prarisankrama) is given in 3.10: 14: the three kinds of annihilation of the plants, who end with the universe, that of the lower animals who go extinct and that of the higher beings that end in the Lord.

Pramâda: illusions by inattention, a wrong conception of reality (see also b h r a m a).

Pramâna: (measure, scale, standard, correct notion, 0neness, unity) a means of acquiring pramâ or certain knowledge; evidence. There are according 11.19: 17, four types of certain knowledge or proof: s' r u t i, s m r i t i (also called aitihaya or traditional knowledge), pratyaksha (direct experience) and anumâna (logical inference). In b h a k t i is also held the division of g u r u, the teacher, s' a s t r a, the scriptures, and s â d h u the co-believer, as the sources of knowledge related to this.

- The four pramânas according the M.W.-dictionary are: perception by the senses, inference, comparison, and verbal authority.

- Truth by sense-perception.

- Six in the v e d â n t a , viz. pratyaksha, perception by the senses; anumâna, inference; upamâna, analogy or comparison; s' a b d a or âpta-vacana, verbal authority, revelation; anupalabdhi or abhâva-pratyaksha, non-perception or negative proof; arthâpatti, inference from circumstances;

- The n y â y a admits only four, excluding the last two.

- The s â n k h y a admits only three, pratyaksha, anumâna and s' a b d a.

Pramathas: ('thought out, wise, excogitate') the different mystic attendants of lord S' i v a. Array with him for battle as with the battle against B â n a in 10.63.6 (and in 10.66.31 and 10.74.52).

Pramlocâ: the heavenly girl sent by I n d r a to seduce sage K a n d u and of whom the daughter M â r i s â was born who became the wife of the P r a c e t â s.

Prâna: the life breath, the vital breath.

- Cosmic energy potently present in oxygen; life generating principle pervading the entire universe (see also v â y u).

Pranasyati: because of a loss of intelligence yielding to temptations.

Pranava omkâra: see o m.

Pranava: primal sound of God, identity of K r i s h n a as a transcendental sound vibration: A U M (see also o m k â r a) (see also 11.14: 34, 11.21: 36-40).

- According to S' r î l a  S' r î d h a r a  S v â m î, the pranava, or o m k â r a, has five parts - A, U, M, the nasal focus (bindu) and the reverberation (nâda). Liberated souls meditate upon the Lord at the end of that reverberation (pp 11.27: 23).

Prânâyâma: breathcontrol by the v a y u s or the settling of the movement of the airs so that well-being is the result (see v â y u & p û r a k a- inhaling, r e c a k a - exhaling, k u m b h a k a, retaining).

- Fourth phase of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a, consisting of breath control discussed by K r i s h n a in S.B. 11.14: 32 and B.G. 4.29).

Prasâda(m): (grace, favor) food offered to K r i s h n a prepared from milk, cereal, beans, vegetables and fruits. Is considered wholesome and blessing. By sacrificing to K r i s h n a gets the food the quality of K r i s h n a.

- Each proof of mercy of the Lord.

Pratiloma: someone born from the mixed marriage between a father from a lower and a mother from a higher caste. Mentioned in: 10.78: 24.

- Something contrary to the natural course or order, reverse, inverted; adverse, hostile, disagreeable, unpleasant.

Pratyag-âtmâ: the liberated soul freed from material bondage.

Pratyâhâra: withdrawing from activity of the senses; one of the eight elements of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a that follows the breathcontrol of p r a n a y â m a; the conscious refraining from all unnecessary sense-activity, the turning inward of one's vision.

Pravritti-mârga: the way of sensual pleasure according the vedic directions.

- Devotional service to the Lord is called n i v r i t t i - d h a r m a, the more sense-oriënted worship of gods and forefathers with ceremonies of sacrifice for the purpose of material results is then called pravritti- dharma (see also S.B.: 3-32: 2, 4.4: 20, 7.15: 47, 11.10: 4 and d h a r m a).

Prema: real, spontaneous, devotional love for/of God (K r i s h n a), the result of s' r a d d h â and b h â v a.

Pretas: ghosts, hobgoblins, evil attendants of lord S' i v a.

Pris'nigarbha: name of the Lord as the one born from the ancestor Pris'ni, or V â m a n a d e v a (see 6.18: 1-9).

Prithâ: A r j u n a's mother, wife of P â n d u, see K u n t î.

Prithu Mahârâja: an empowered incarnation of Lord K r i s h n a who demonstrated how to be an ideal king (see 4.15-23).

Priyavrata: From the father of mankind called S v â y a m b h u v a  M a n u and his wife S'atarûpâ their sexual life according the rules of religion, was there the increase of the generations. He begot from S'atarûpâ five children with Priyavrata and Uttânapâda as their sons and Âkûti (married to the sage Ruci), D e v a h û t i (who married with K a r d a m a) and Prasûti (who married to D a k s h a) as their daughters. The two sons were of the greatest and their sons and grandsons spread all over the world. D h r u v a was a grandson of Uttânapâda (see 3.12:56, 4.1 4.8:7, 4.31: 26). Though reluctant to do his duty, was Priyavrata convinced by B r a h m â himself. Thus came from him the many generations. He perfectly thought to satisfy the Supreme Lord by on a chariot circumambulating the Mountain of Enlightenment of the sungod. With the rims of his wheels he is reported to have created the seven places of refuge, the islands of b h û - m a n d a l a (see 5.1 for the story). Another daughter named Ûrjasvatî he gave away as the wife of to the great sage Usanâ (S u k r â c â r y a).

Pulaha: one of the ten m a h â r i s h i s born from B r a h m â. Received from K a r d a m a his daughter Gatî in marriage (3.24: 22).

- Gatî, the wife of Pulaha gave birth to three chaste sons (Karmasrestha, Varîyân and Sahisnu) who knew all about karma and were also very respectable and tolerant (4.1: 38).

- His a s' r â m a, also called Hari-kshetra, is situated in Hardwar and belongs to the holiest places (5.7: 8) that time and again should be paid a visit by the one who desires the auspiciousness as it is there that of the persons the religious activities performed are a thousand times more effective (see 7.14: 30-33).

Pulastya: one of the ten m a h â r i s h i s born from B r a h m â. Received from K a r d a m a his daughter Havirbhû in marriage (3.24: 22).

- Pulastya begot in his wife Havirbhû, Â g a s t y a, who in his next birth would be Dahrâgni (the one of the digestive fire) and Visrava the great one of austerity (4.1: 36).

- The one sage who told P a r â s a r a M u n i the B h â g a v a t a m that was later told to the sage M a i t r e y a who instucted V i d u r a (see 3.8: 9).

- B h a r a t a withdrew again in Pulastya's and P u l a h a's â s' r a m a as the deer he changed into. (see 5.8: 30).

Pundit (pandit): (scholar, teacher, philospher, brahmin sage, learned man) officiator, priest in hindu ceremonies (see also M i m â m s â and d a r s h a n a).

- A Hindu b r a h m i n who has memorized a substantial portion of the V e d a s, along with the corresponding rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. Hindus hire them to chant Vedic verses at y a j ñ a s and other events, both public and private.

- A term of great respect given to Indian classical musicians (usually Hindu) acknowledged to be masters.

Purâna: narration; eighteen very old books about the history of the planet and other worlds (there are also eighteen u p a - p u r â n a s, smaller ones).

- The stories; eighteen very old books or bibles from big, 81.000 verses to small, 9.000 verses, six about V i s h n u, six about S' i v a and six about B r a h m â, containing (vedic) histories about the relation of mankind with the different forms of God and their worlds. The Vishnu-purâna the S' r î m a d  B h â g a v a t a m, also called the Bhâgavata Purâna and Paramahamsa Samhitâ, is considered the most important (see also 12.7: 23-24, 12.13: 4-9 i t i h â s a, v e d a).

Creation, secondary creation, de dynasties of the kings, their activities and the reigns of the M a n u s are the five characteristics of each Purâna (Amarkhasa).

The six Vishnu purânas:

'1. S'rîmad Bhâgavata purâna (18.000 verses) has because of its beautiful presentation style, a high rank in Sanskrit literature. It contains tales related to various incarnations of Lord V i s h n u and mainly deals with the life and plays of Lord K r i s h n a.

2. Vishnu purâna (23.000 verses) Also contains five parts. First part narrates about the creation of the universe, p r a l a y a and the churning of the ocean. Second part contains geographical description of earth divided into seven islands. Third part describes about the origin of B h u d d h i s m. Fourth part contains a description about the populating of the earth from the beginning. Fifth part is entirely devoted to the life and plays of Lord K r i s h n a (Stories of various devotees; a description of v a r n â s' r a m a; the six a n g a s of the V e d a; a description of the age of Kali; description of Sveta Varâha K a l p a, Vishnu dharmotara. Varâha K a l p a, Vishnu dharmotara).

3. Nâradiya purâna (25.000 verses) is a v a i s h n a v a Purâna presented in a style of dialogue between N â r a d a and S a n a t - k u m â r a. This Purâna contains detailed description of major places of pilgrimage (a synopsis of everything; it describes Jagannatha Puri, Dvârakâ, Badrinatha, etc. ).

4. Padma purâna (55.000 verses) Contains five parts. In the first part, sage P u l a s t y a explains the essence of religion to B h î s h m a. The second part contains a description of the earth. Third part contains tales of creation as well as geographical description of India. Fourth part describes the life of Lord R â m a. In the fifth part, essential knowledge of religion has been discussed in dialogue style between Lord S' i v a and P â r v a t î (Contains the glory of S ' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m; the stories of R â m a, J a g a n n a t h a, M a t s y a, E k â d a s 'î, B h r i g u, etc.).

5. Varâha purâna (24.000 verses) contains the tale of rescue of the earth by the a v a t â r V a r â h a (boar incarnation) of Lord V i s h n u (Describes different vratas; Lord V i s h n u 's glories).

6. Garuda purâna (19.000 verses) is about Lord V i s h n u preaching his vehicle, G a r u d a about the subtleties of religion and life. Besides, trivial tales related to religion and moral, this Purâna also contains description of diamond like jewels and the ways to identify best kind of jewels. (Subject of B h a g a v a d - g î t â; reincarnation; vishnu-sahaasra-nama; description of Tarsya K a l p a .)'

The six Brahmâ purânas are:

'1. Vâmana purâna (10.000 verses) is the purâna is entirely devoted to V â m a n a  a v a t â r a (incarnation) of Lord V i s h n u narrated in dialogue style between the sage P u l a s t y a and the devoted N â r a d a .

2. Mârakandeya purâna (9.000 verses) begins with a question put forth by sage Jaimini. In reply to this question, sage M â r k a n d e y a narrates what constitutes the subject matter of this Purâna (Stories of R â m a and K r i s h n a).

3. Brahmâ purâna (10.000 verses) Contains two parts - Purva Bhâga and Uttar Bhâga. Purva Bhâga contains tales of creation, description of Lord R â m a and Lord K r i s h n a. Uttar Bhâga contains a detailed description of Purushottama Tîrtha prominent among all the holy places.

4. Brahma vaivarta purâna (18.000 verses) This purâna contains four parts. First part contains the tale of creation. Second part contains tales related to goddesses. Third part contains tales related to Lord G a n e s h a. In the fourth part, tales related to the life and plays of Lord K r i s h n a have been given. (Contains the glories and pastimes of R â d h â and K r i s h n a).

5. Brahmânda purâna (12.000 verses) It is the last of the eighteen purânas. Presently it is available in different pieces and no connection seems to exist between them. Once, it had contained Aadhyatma Ramâyana. (Describes the v e d a n g a's and the Adi K a l p a).

6. Bhavishya purâna (14.500 verses): This purâna contains five parvas (parts). The first part contains description of creation. Second, third and fourth parts contain detailed description of lord S' i v a, Lord V i s h n u and S û r y a respectively. In the fifth part, description of heaven has been given (Contains the glories of devotional service; prediction of Lord C a i t a n y a). '

The six S'iva purânas are:

'1. Skanda purâna (81.100 verses) It is the largest purâna. It is mainly devoted to K â r t i k e y a (S k a n d a) the son of lord S' i v a and P â r v a t î. Besides, it contains a lot of tales related to lord S' i v a and many holy places of pilgrimage devoted prominently to S' i v a.

2. S'iva mahapurâna (24.000 verses) It is also a huge compilation of tales devoted primarily to the life and plays of lord S' i v a. It is divided into seven s a m h i t â s, which together contain more than twenty-four thousand stanzas.

3. Kûrma purâna (17.000 verses) Lord Himself has narrated this Purâna in Kûrma (tortoise) incarnation to N â r a d a. N â r a d a narrated it to Sutaji who in his term narrated it to an assembly of great sages (Contains the conversation between K r i s h n a and the Sun-god (mentioned in B h a g a v a d - g î t â); D h a n v a n t a r i ; describes the L a k s h m î K a l p a ).

4. Matsya purâna (14.000 verses) is about the Lord's fish incarnation and the preservation of M a n u and the seeds of all life during the destruction (p r a l a y a) by the M a t s y a a v a t â r a (Temple construction; describes V â m a n a and V a r â h a K a l p a s).

5. Linga purâna (11.000 verses): Preaching about the glory of lord S' i v a en L i n g a worship is the main objective of this purâna. In two parts, this purâna contains tales related to the creation of the universe, origin of the l i n g a, of the V e d a's, lord B r a h m â, Lord V i s h n u etc. from this l i n g a (Contains the glory of Lord N r i s i m h a d e v a; J a n â r d h a n a; the story of A m b a r î s h a M a h â r â j a; the glories of G â y a t r î).

6. Agni purâna (15.400 verses) is devoted to A g n i. It is presented in preaching style by A g n i to sage V a s i s h t h h a. It contains the description of various incarnations of God, Lord R â m a and K r i s h n a as well as of the earth and stars (Contains the description of Salagrama; describes the Isana K a l p a).'

(see also the site urday.com and alt.hindu).

- There are ten characteristics of a purâna:

- The creation (of this universe, sarga),
- the subsequent creation (of different worlds and beings, visarga),
- the maintenance (the sustenance, the vritti or sthâna)
- and protection (the rakshâ or poshana of the living beings),
- the reigns (the
m a n v a n t a r a s of the various M a n u s),
- the dynasties (vams'as),
- the narrations about them (vams'a-anucaritam),
- the annihilation (of different kinds,
p r a l a y a or samsthâ),
- the motivation (of individuality or hetu)
- and the supreme shelter (of the Fortunate One or apâs'raya), (see
2.10: 1 and 12.7: 9-10).

- S' r î l a  J î v a  G o s v â m î has explained to this that the ten principal topics of S'rîmad-Bhâgavatam are found within each of the twelve c a n t o s. One should not try to assign each of the ten topics to a particular c a n t o. Nor should the S'rîmad-Bhâgavatam be artificially interpreted to show that it deals with the topics successively. The simple fact is that all aspects of knowledge important to human beings, summarized in the ten categories mentioned above, are described with various degrees of emphasis and analysis throughout the S'rîmad-Bhâgavatam (pp. 12.7: 9-10).

Purânah: the oldest; a quality of the soul.

Purañjana: a king in an allegory about the j î v a living in the city with nine gates or the body (see 4.25 and further). A story told by N â r a d a to king P r â c î n a b a r h i.

Pure Devotee: someone who, free from all attachment to the fruits of his actions (k a r m a) and to speculative thought (j ñ â n a), surrenders with body and soul to the service of the Lord and thus achieves the perfection of devotion unto God and the acme of spiritual realization.  

Purûravâ: a king born from the, to a woman, cursed S u d y u m n a and the powerful Budha. He later married the heavenly U r v a s'î that left him in denial of his attachment (see 9.14).

- Founder of the dynasty that with the Y a d u s and the K u r u s (descendants of P û r u) ran into conflict with themselves in the great war of K u r u k s h e t r a.

Purusha: the male principle; the Absolute Truth in its original form (m a h â p u r u s h a). The lord as the p u r u s h a assumed the original form of the material world with her sixteen principles of material action (S.B. 1.3:1, see also v i r a t h - r û p a)

- The original person, the incorporeal godhead.

- (as cause and effect), the mind, de e l e m e n t s, f a l s e e g o, the g u n a s, the s e n s e s, the Universal form or appearance (see v i r a t h - r û p a) with the moving and nonmoving living entities and the complete independence all together.

- The living being, the person as the enjoyer.

- K r i s h n a as the Supreme Enjoyer.

- V i s h n u as the first a v a t â r a (p u r u s h a - a v a t â r a, see V i s h n u).

- Separated from the material nature under the influence of Time (see 11.24: 3).

Purushârthas: goals of a material life. In four: k â m a, a r t h a, d h a r m a, m o k s h a; by (resp.) regulation of lust, profit and religious duty one finds liberation. Often mentioned in three not mentioning the m o k s h a.

Purusha-avatâras: the first expansions of K r i s h n a as the original person, three in number, involved in the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the material universe. (see also a v a t â r a and S.B. 2.7). These are the primary expansions of Lord V i s h n u:

- Kâranodakas'âyî Vishnu (Mâhâ-Vishnu) lies within the Causal Ocean and breathes our innumerable universes;

- Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu enters each universe and creates diversity;

- Kshîrodakas'âyî Vishnu (the Supersoul) enters into the heart of every created being and into every atom.

Pûjâ: honour, worship, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors or adoration of the gods. With â r a t i and k î r t a n.

- The worship of the deity or the representative of God at home or in the temple (see a r c a n a and b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a).

Pûraka: the phase inhaling the breath (see p r â n â y â m a).

Pûrnam (om-): the fullness of K r i s h n a: in qualities in six: riches, beauty, fame, strength, knowledge and renunciation (see also b h a g a and p o t e n c i e s).

- To the separate division called the Complete Whole: the unity of Him, the Lord; the soul, the matter, the activity and the Time (resp. Î s'v a r a, j î v a, p r a k r i t i, k a r m a en k â l a).

Pûru: the son of king Y a y â t i who took the burden of old age from his father so that he could stay young, and so became the founder of the dynasty named after him. Because K r i s h n a belonged to the dynasty of his brother Y a d u, who refused his fathers request, could he not ascend the throne after U g r a s e n a (see 9:18). This was so because the descendants of Pûru, to which also the P â n d a v a s belonged, contested the rule of the Y a d u s because of Y a y â t i's curse with J a r â s a n d h a and S'i s'u p â l a fanatic after the death of K a m s a and thus was K r i s h n a forced into retreat in D v â r a k â (see e.g. 10.68: 13-22), which together with the exile of the P â n d a v a s ultimately led to the great war of K u r u k s h e t r a and the downfall of the entire c a n d r a - v a m s' a, the lunar dynasty of P u r û r a v â that had ruled India after R â m a c a n d r a (see 9: 14 en 9:18).

Pûrvataram: (previous, anterior, ancient, prior, before, first) term relating to liberated souls of yore with whom one must be in touch to have proof of the soul (see also p a r a m p a r â).

Pûrvacitti: ('foreboding, first notion or conception') the name of the a p s a r a that the Lord is confessed to (see 11.16: 33).

Pûtanâ: witch in the form of a beautiful woman sent by K a m s a to kill baby K r i s h n a, but who instead was killed by K r i s h n a and thus found liberation (see S.B. 10.6).


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